Mycenae. The mythical kingdom of the Lions.
Mycenae is a hill of 278 meters above sea level and 45-50 meters from its footpaths to the northern slopes of the Argolic plain, between the hills of Prophet Elias and Sarah. Two ravines, Kokoretsa from north. and Havos from south. isolate it and allow access only from the west side. The original occupation dates back to the Neolithic times that it left, as did the next first phase of the copper period, only scattered ceramic remains. With the establishment of the first Greek genders in 2000 BC. the habitation thickens and the two royal burial circles show that already in 1650 BC. Τhe hill was the seat of wealthy and powerful rulers who, thanks to their geographic location, helped to land communications with Central Greece and the north and sea with the Aegean, Crete and the Mediterranean, and maintained dense relations with the surrounding world.
The population is constantly growing and wealth and living standards are rising steadily. In the middle of the 14th century BC the wall surrounding the acropolis was built. A hundred years later, the fortification extended to South and West and acquired two gates, one of which was decorated with the relief of the Lions. Shortly thereafter, the BA extension was added, ensuring the safe and easy water supply at the Acropolis. The palace complex doubled, and some houses, perhaps dependent on the palace, were built outside the walls. A dense road network connected it with mainland Greece and the surrounding waters. Mycenae had become the headquarters of a complex financial and administrative organization under their own reliance, based mainly on trade with the corresponding centers of the Mediterranean. Shortly after the mid-13th century BC the acropolis and the surrounding area were tested by a devastating earthquake that caused some local fires. The rebuilding and repair of the damages made immediately is evident, especially in the palace complex, the religious center and the houses of Panagitsa hill.
Around the end of the century and the beginning of the next, few erupted single and not necessarily simultaneous fires, followed by new repairs. During the 12th century BC most palatal and non-palatial facilities continued to function. However, the disturbances of 1200 BC in Asia Minor and the Eastern Mediterranean, and the destruction of their merchants by the Raiders who became known as the Peoples of the Sea cut off the contacts of the Mycenaean Retrievers with their major trading centers, causing the general decline and the gradual decomposition of central power. The 12th and 11th c. BC is for Mycenae a period of economic shrinking and political decline, but no general or even widespread disasters. The acropolis had no violent end.